Although I believe the logic to answer the original problem was present, it was distributed among several postings... It did not seem right to mark any single post as the best answer. Therefore, here is the bonus round.
If approached correctly, this version is not much harder than the original.
The puzzle:
Three perfect logicians had stickers placed on their foreheads so that none could see their own sticker but each could see one another's. They were told that each sticker has a single positive integer written on it (i.e.1, 2, 3, ...), and that the sum of the integers on all three stickers is either 1002 or 1003. They were then asked, in turn, to identify the number on their own sticker. Upon being asked, each logician would name their number if they were sure that they knew it, give up if they were sure that they would never know it, or otherwise 'pass' (or say "I don't know"). The question was repeated, again in turn, until EACH of the three logicians had either named their number or given up. All three stickers actually had the same number written on them. Who among the three logicians was able to deduce his number, and who among them gave up? (Furthermore, how did each answer?)
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Although I believe the logic to answer the original problem was present, it was distributed among several postings... It did not seem right to mark any single post as the best answer. Therefore, here is the bonus round.
If approached correctly, this version is not much harder than the original.
The puzzle:
Three perfect logicians had stickers placed on their foreheads so that none could see their own sticker but each could see one another's. They were told that each sticker has a single positive integer written on it (i.e.1, 2, 3, ...), and that the sum of the integers on all three stickers is either 1002 or 1003. They were then asked, in turn, to identify the number on their own sticker. Upon being asked, each logician would name their number if they were sure that they knew it, give up if they were sure that they would never know it, or otherwise 'pass' (or say "I don't know"). The question was repeated, again in turn, until EACH of the three logicians had either named their number or given up. All three stickers actually had the same number written on them. Who among the three logicians was able to deduce his number, and who among them gave up? (Furthermore, how did each answer?)
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