You played Three Games of Zarball and had to win two in a row... you made the right choices (but unfortunately lost).

Your second chance for freedom came with the Five Games of Zarball, in which you had to win at least one of three combinations. Again, you lost in a mistake up against the King.

However you won your freedom, and deserved it, in the intense Royal Zarball Tournament, where you made your way to victory.

Now you have taken the King's offer as the Supreme Dignifiably Appointed Royal Zarball Trainer of Excellence.

First, it would help if I explained what zarball really is:

As you know, it's a 1-on-1 game of agility, strength, speed, accuracy and skill. It's played on the Zarball Arena on the palace roof, and the Arena is a circle of soft and spongy grass, well-tended by the Royal Gardeners, and high up on the palace roof where it gets a lot of sun, but is cut often by the Royal Gardeners to keep it perfect, just as the King likes it. The circular Zarball Arena is a perfect circle, with a radius of 20 feet. Around it's circumference is a chest-high woven fence where the front-row spectators, coaches, referees, ball lackeys and score-keepers stand. There are a ring of seats and bleachers surrounding the Arena after that.

At the center of the Arena is a hole with a diameter of 1 foot 2 inches, thus a radius of 7 inches, and since the center of the hole corresponds with the center of the circle, takes up the first 7 inches of the radius of the Arena.

Why is the hole 1 foot 2 inches in diameter? Because the zarballs are 1 foot in diameter, and they go in the hole. Back to that in a sec.

There are two players in zarball. The Red Player and the Blue Player. There are three balls: red, blue and green. If a red ball is scored, the Red Player gets 1 point. If a blue ball is scored, the Blue Player gets 1 point. And if a green ball is scored, 1 point is given to the player with the least amount of points- and if it is a tie, no points are given.

So how do you score a ball? By throwing it in the central hole of course ;D One of the big reasons that the Zarball Arena is on the palace roof is that there are ball lackeys in the Catch Room, as it's called, directly underneath the Zarball Arena, who take the balls that are scored (they fall through the hole from the Arena above to a basket in the Catch Room placed underneath the hole). The ball lackeys then slot the ball back in a device which spins it around the circle and pops it out randomly from underneath the fence at the edge of the circle, where the ball quickly rolls back into play. The three balls are initially placed at a random angle and a random radius from 2 feet to 18 feet from the center of the Arena.

There are other rules as to how you can take the ball and score it in the hole, but those aren't important to this riddle. What is important is how you win: (of course that's important) When you get 10 points. Yep, easy as that.

That should be important in the future, but right now, focus your attention on the five spectators standing at the fence. The King, Queen, Prince, Duke and Earl. They're the first here to see the match between you, Supreme Dignifiably Appointed Royal Zarball Trainer of Excellence, and your prime pupil.

Unfortunately there's a gust of wind on the palace roof, and the five spectators, all wearing identical hats rooting for your pupil to win (gee, thanks ), and the hats are blown off of the palace roof and scrambled randomly, by the wind of course, by the time they hit the ground in the palace gardens.

No matter, though, the ball lackeys quickly run down, grab the hats, and get back up before there's any Royal Fuss. Not sure whose hat is whose, they hand them out to the King, Queen, Prince, Duke and Earl randomly.

a) What are the chances that at least one royal spectator got their hat back?

b) What are the chances that EXACTLY ONE person gets their hat back?

c) What about exactly two people?

d) And finally, what are the chances that MORE THAN TWO of the spectators will get their hats back?

## Question

## unreality 1

You played Three Games of Zarball and had to win two in a row... you made the right choices (but unfortunately lost).

Your second chance for freedom came with the Five Games of Zarball, in which you had to win at least one of three combinations. Again, you lost in a mistake up against the King.

However you won your freedom, and deserved it, in the intense Royal Zarball Tournament, where you made your way to victory.

Now you have taken the King's offer as the

Supreme Dignifiably Appointed Royal Zarball Trainer of Excellence.First, it would help if I explained what zarball really is:

As you know, it's a 1-on-1 game of agility, strength, speed, accuracy and skill. It's played on the Zarball Arena on the palace roof, and the Arena is a circle of soft and spongy grass, well-tended by the Royal Gardeners, and high up on the palace roof where it gets a lot of sun, but is cut often by the Royal Gardeners to keep it perfect, just as the King likes it. The circular Zarball Arena is a perfect circle, with a radius of 20 feet. Around it's circumference is a chest-high woven fence where the front-row spectators, coaches, referees, ball lackeys and score-keepers stand. There are a ring of seats and bleachers surrounding the Arena after that.

At the center of the Arena is a hole with a diameter of 1 foot 2 inches, thus a radius of 7 inches, and since the center of the hole corresponds with the center of the circle, takes up the first 7 inches of the radius of the Arena.

Why is the hole 1 foot 2 inches in diameter? Because the zarballs are 1 foot in diameter, and they go in the hole. Back to that in a sec.

There are two players in zarball. The Red Player and the Blue Player. There are three balls: red, blue and green. If a red ball is scored, the Red Player gets 1 point. If a blue ball is scored, the Blue Player gets 1 point. And if a green ball is scored, 1 point is given to the player with the least amount of points- and if it is a tie, no points are given.

So how do you score a ball? By throwing it in the central hole of course ;D One of the big reasons that the Zarball Arena is on the palace roof is that there are ball lackeys in the Catch Room, as it's called, directly underneath the Zarball Arena, who take the balls that are scored (they fall through the hole from the Arena above to a basket in the Catch Room placed underneath the hole). The ball lackeys then slot the ball back in a device which spins it around the circle and pops it out randomly from underneath the fence at the edge of the circle, where the ball quickly rolls back into play. The three balls are initially placed at a random angle and a random radius from 2 feet to 18 feet from the center of the Arena.

There are other rules as to how you can take the ball and score it in the hole, but those aren't important to this riddle. What is important is how you win: (of course that's important) When you get 10 points. Yep, easy as that.

That should be important in the future, but right now, focus your attention on the five spectators standing at the fence. The King, Queen, Prince, Duke and Earl. They're the first here to see the match between you, Supreme Dignifiably Appointed Royal Zarball Trainer of Excellence, and your prime pupil.

Unfortunately there's a gust of wind on the palace roof, and the five spectators, all wearing identical hats rooting for your pupil to win (gee, thanks ), and the hats are blown off of the palace roof and scrambled randomly, by the wind of course, by the time they hit the ground in the palace gardens.

No matter, though, the ball lackeys quickly run down, grab the hats, and get back up before there's any Royal Fuss. Not sure whose hat is whose, they hand them out to the King, Queen, Prince, Duke and Earl randomly.

a) What are the chances that at least one royal spectator got their hat back?

b) What are the chances that EXACTLY ONE person gets their hat back?

c) What about exactly two people?

d) And finally, what are the chances that MORE THAN TWO of the spectators will get their hats back?

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